How to perform Force-Velocity Profiling?
FVP is a simple process which requires minimal equipment. The jumping and sprinting tests require different variables which are outlined below. Using the reliable and validated smartphone applications [21, 22], a coach can quickly and easily calculate variables such as optimal force, optimal velocity, FVimb, RF, and DRF. The detailed methods/instructions for calculating FVP in sprinting and jumping can be found in the following studies [4, 8, 10, 18]:
- Samozino (2015)
- Morin (2016)
- Samozino (2014)
- Samozino (2008)
How to FV profile maximal sprinting
In order to create a FV profile for sprinting, the following items are needed: body mass (kg), height (m), and either distance-time data or speed-time data (minimum 5 splits for given distance) which can be obtained with timing gates . It is also recommended that testing should be performed indoors to ensure a consistent surface, and to prevent any impact of wind speed and/or temperature. In addition, visible vertical poles are also required in order to mark the distance for different splits (e.g. 5, 10, 15m)
To assess a sprint FVP, the RF and DRF must be fully understood. RF is the percentage calculated by the amount of horizontal force produced divided by the vertical force produced throughout a sprint. A higher RF throughout the sprint is considered desirable as it suggests the athlete is applying higher amounts of horizontal force. However, as speed increases, the RF (%) will inevitably decline – typically referred to as the DRF. A lower DRF is considered desirable as this implies that the athlete is better at producing horizontal force as velocity increases.
How to FV profile maximal jumping
In order to create a FV profile for jumping, the following items are needed: body mass (kg), standing height (m), jump height (m), and two lower-limb length measurements: 1) at fully extended position (m); and 2) with knees bent at 90° (m). A minimum of 5 separate jumps with an additional load for each jump is required to create a profile. To choose loads, there must be an even distribution of additional load starting from 0% body mass to the last load at which the participant can jump about 10cm with . For example, five loads you may choose are body weight (BW), 15% BW, 30% BW, 45% BW, and 60% BW.
To assess a jump FVP, the FVimb between the ‘actual’ and ‘optimal’ jump profile must be fully understood. The distance and direction between the actual and optimal FV slope is referred to as the FVimb (Figure 3). A greater FVimb (%) suggests the athlete is biased towards either force or velocity (i.e. force- or velocity-deficient), depending on the direction of the slope. A lower FVimb is considered desirable as it suggests the athlete is well-balanced in producing both force and velocity. When an athlete demonstrates a high FVimb, decreasing the number is often the priority and can result in an improved vertical jump performance .